Spotlight on Gypsum Gallery


Six months ago Gypsum Gallery opened in an apartment on Bahgat Ali Street in Zamalek. The gallery is ready to launch a new solo show by Alexandria-based artist Mahmoud Khaled and on the occasion Cairobserver sent Aleya Hamza, the founder of the gallery, some questions to help us situate Gypsum in Cairo’s artscape. For more information visit the gallery’s website and “Like” its Facebook page to stay connected.

Gypsum is located at 5A Bahgat Ali Street, apt 12 (third floor) in Zamalek

Tell us about Gypsum, what kind of gallery is it?

Gypsum Gallery is a Cairo-based gallery with a focus on contemporary art. The vision of the gallery is to take the progressive, dynamic and investigative art practices associated with non-profit spaces in Egypt into a commercial gallery context. Gypsum represents 8 mid-career artists who live and work between Cairo, Alexandria, Beirut, Kuwait, Amman, Tehran, Basel and Berlin with a program of solo shows and participation in art fairs. I am absolutely committed to forging long-standing relationships with our artists, to taking calculated risks, and to building a rigorous platform for the production, exhibition and collection of contemporary art.

Tell us about the physical space of the gallery, was it difficult to find a space suitable for exhibition and what did it take to transform a residential apartment into an art Gallery.

Gypsum is located in beautiful, well-lit converted apartment on the third floor of a residential building in Zamalek. The main exhibition space consists of two large interconnected rooms with hardwood floors and high ceilings. One room has a large window with an expansive view giving on a lush garden, one of the perks of Zamalek being an island on the Nile. Two rooms, an office and a multi-purpose room (black box, bar, inventory) make up the rest of the space.  In a dense urban center like Cairo, it is practically impossibly to have a purpose-built space unless it is located on the peripheries of the city, or it’s public sector. This explains why the majority of art spaces are converted, whether it’s an apartment, a villa, a factory, a garage or a storefront. As much as possible, I tried to recreate a versatile white cube environment in which the works take center stage while maintaining a personal atmosphere in an accessible location that caters to a wide range of audiences.


How does Gypsum fit within Cairo’s network of galleries?

In a way, Gypsum Gallery is the bastard child of the commercial galleries of Zamalek and the non-profit spaces of Downtown and Garden City (and now Agouza). Perhaps the most striking difference with the commercial galleries is that we are not exclusively focused on Egyptian art or limited to a particular medium such as painting or sculpture. Our geographical location inevitably shapes the program and of course its natural that I’m drawn to artists that work with familiar questions, but the gallery is part of a larger network of spaces that operate within a global circuit.

How would you describe the art scene in Cairo at the moment and what role can a space like Gypsum play in that scene

I think it’s a very stimulating and intense moment. There is a certain shift in the level of self-awareness that is taking place across the board from artists and galleries to audiences, and I believe that this is critical for building a solid art scene, and I’m very excited to be part of that. I see Gypsum as an adventure. Our role is to set up this model in a turbulent historical junction, to remain resilient and to have an understanding that change does not happen overnight.

Egypt is still producing some of the Arab World’s most sought after artists, yet their market is mostly in the Gulf, how do you explain this uneven distribution of where art is produced and where it is consumed

The arts infrastructure in Egypt is dysfunctional. Non-profit spaces have been stepping in to provide the educational needs that art schools are battling with. Established international Egyptian artists rarely show in Cairo because their galleries are elsewhere, and there is almost no market for the works that they produce in Egypt. Once we establish a new system of patronage with an awareness of contemporary art, things will change.


[Installation of Gypsum’s inaugural show, photo courtesy of Gypsum Gallery]

Tell us about the artists you currently represent

What connects this group of exceptional artists is singularity of their vision, and their commitment to pushing their practice to its absolute limit. Since the gallery opened its doors almost six months ago, it has been an incredible journey working with each and everyone of them, the majority of whom I have work with or known for more than ten years. I’m always overwhelmed by their faith and generosity.


What is the current show and what comes next in the short and long run.

Our current show is a solo show by Alexandria-based artist Mahmoud Khaled called Painter on a Study Trip. This ambition and pensive show spans photography, sculpture, painting, text, video and installation to reflect on artist’s own classical training as a painter at the Academy of Fine Arts in Alexandria and its complicated relationship to the language and values of contemporary art. Khaled’s series of interrelated new works is designed with the Gypsum Gallery space in mind. The show is the gallery’s biggest production since our inaugural show and is as beautiful and poetic as it is conceptual.

The season ends with two more shows: A solo by Amman-based Ala Younis who will present a new body of work that closes the third installment of her trilogy about Arab Nationalism. UAR is research-based project centered on Nasser, the hero and the myth, and Younis has been invited to participate with it in the Kamel Lazaar Foundation Projects. Following is the first solo show by Taha Belal (of Nile Sunset Annex) in which he takes on a formal and physical investigation of media images. We restart next season in June with two highly anticipated solo shows: a new ground breaking painting exhibition by Mona Marzouk, and a show by this year’s Abraaj Prize winner Basim Magdy.



[Current show at Gypsum Gallery. Photos courtesy of Mahmoud Khaled]

Kafein: Global coffee culture fused with the taste of Cairo


To the pleasure of many seeking a delicious coffee downtown in a friendly and laid-back space, Kafein is a new café that is quickly becoming a meeting point for friends like it has been there for years. Dina and Nadia, the entrepreneurs behind the new venture, are clearly doing something right. Cairobserver sent them some questions to introduce us to Kafein and the concept behind it. Make sure to stop by Kafein, where not only can you consume delicious coffees and tees but also read the latest Cairobserver print magazine. Visit Kafein’s Facebook page and “like” it to stay connected.

Kafein is located at 28 Sharif Street in the pedestrian alley behind McDonald’s

Tell us about Kafein, what is the concept, where is it, what’s on offer

Kafein is brand new café/gallery space in Downtown; actually it is technically located in Abdeen. We serve a wide selection of artisan coffees and premium loose-leaf teas, seasonal juices, and will soon have a small selection of tasty sandwiches and treats on our menu. The walls of Kafein also serve as a gallery space for local artists to exhibit their works. Our vision is to add a new element to the café scene in Cairo—a particular seriousness about caffeinated and non-caffeinated beverages paired with a commitment to creating an atmosphere that inspires thinking, creativity, new friendships, and dreams. The concept behind the space is to really fuse global coffee and tea culture with the spirit and tastes of Cairo.

How does it fit in Cairo’s café culture?

Cairo’s café culture is very rich and diverse; there are literally cafés in every nook of this city. As café frequenters, we tend to avoid or actually boycott the chains for political reasons. On the other hand, we regularly go to particular ahwas in our neighborhood in Abdeen as well as more up-scale cafés in Zamalek and occasionally other areas of Cairo. As customers, we were frustrated by the lack of cafés in Downtown, the absence of affordable and good quality spots in general, and the gap between ahwas and the overpriced joints in Zamalek and other areas.

The politics of Kafein are informed by our personal likes and dislikes with Cairo’s café culture. Kafein is also a burgeoning art gallery, which we think is important in order to enhance the visceral experience of being in the space as well as to have art be part of one’s mundane activities, such as grabbing a coffee. Our first exhibition, “The Visual Meal,” was curated by Art On The Go and featured works by Menna Genedy, Amal Salah, and Amy Arif, who also helped in many stages of the café’s preparation.

Egyptian ahwas are both an inspiration for the design of Kafein and helped to inform our decisions about our menu. By using several items from the Egyptian vernacular in a modern composition, we aimed to create an atmosphere that is simple, oddly familiar, and a little quirky. We thus combined unstained wood, recycled steel chairs, water pipes, tawate2, wedding-like strings of lights with labeled jars of tea and coffee, hand-stamped paper items, chalk-board menus, etc..

In terms of the menu, Egypt has so many herbs that it grows itself such as chamomile, hibiscus, sage, anis, lemon grass, mint, etc.. You find some of these items in their loose form at ahwas and some cafés sell tea-bag versions. While we have imported a range of hand-blended artisan black, green, and herbal teas, it was important for us to also feature these local products. For example, we serve al-‘aroosa tea in an enamel-painted teapot from Aswan with dried mint from Siwa. We also offer what could be considered the summer drink of New York City—cold-brew iced coffee.

The other way in which we are trying to break the boundaries between ahwas and cafés is in terms of accessibility. We want Kafein to be a space that anyone can go to; this was a priority when we set our prices. While we understand that not everyone can afford to pay five pounds for a cup of tea, we hope that having regular ahwa items such as tea and Turkish coffee at the same prices as neighboring spots will help to make the space more inclusive. We are also really excited about the fact that people who do not normally come to Downtown are making the trip to sit at Kafein, and thus our space is actually bringing people to this area.


Kafein has a sister establishment nearby, Dina’s Hostel, how did you go from the hostel to the café?

Dina opened Dina’s Hostel in December of 2009, since then the hostel flourished, starting with four rooms and growing to eighteen. Due to the political unrest in the country, however, tourism has suffered; thus we decided to create a new business. More significantly, however, we wanted to create a space that we felt was sorely missed in Downtown. Kafein is in many ways an extension of the philosophy of Dina’s Hostel Art Space, which is founded on the belief that we need more spaces in Downtown and elsewhere for people to gather.

Why did you choose to open your café in downtown over other parts of the city?

We come from two very different places. Dina is from Alexandria and Nadia is from New York. For the past four years Abdeen has been a home to both of us. Thus we both had the feeling that we wanted to create a particular kind of space in our own neighborhood. Downtown of course has its own historic establishments in addition to the ever expanding cafés in the streets surrounding the Borsa. Yet investors and business women and men alike seem to be flocking to more residential and more affluent places like Zamalek, Maadi, and newer areas outside of Cairo in 6th of October and New Cairo. As entrepreneurs, however, we wanted to create a space to bring people once again to Downtown.

This space is a labor of love, how did you go about the design, the branding and all the elements that make up Kafein

The initial inspiration for the design was to mix different elements of particular New York City cafés and Egyptian ahwas, both spaces we are intimately familiar with and love. Using this as a starting point, we began to design the space, menu, and concept of Kafein. All of our friends helped with their expertise. We are especially indebted to the very talented Valerie Arif who brilliantly designed our logo and worked with us in creating the identity of Kafein. And to Angela Smith who offered her expertise in Australian cafés to help us to create and standardize the drink menu for Kafein. It’s a new place, so we are still actually creating the brand and developing its own distinctiveness. Prior to opening our doors and during this “soft opening” period we have received so much great feedback and assistance from family, friends, guests, and passerby’s, and we are extremely grateful for everyone’s generosity and support.



What was the most challenging aspect of getting the place up and running?

Instead of using a contractor or engineer, we did all of the construction work on our own with individual craftsmen and laborers. In hindsight dealing directly with laborers is extraordinarily difficult. Further, while we have familiarity with the field of hospitality, this is a very new business for both of us and there is a huge learning curve. From small decisions about what size and shape cup a latte should be served in and whether a cappuccino should have chocolate powder on the top to learning how to train and manage café staff in order to offer the quality of service that we envision, we have our hands full. It’s an ongoing process and we are still working out the kinks.

Why do you think young people haven’t been able to translate their creative energies into more spaces such as Kafein? Is it the finances? Red tape?

There are probably hundreds of reasons why one would not want to open a business such as Kafein. If we were to specifically speak about “Downtown,” there is a great deal of stereotypes about what you can and cannot do or what would work in terms of particular types of businesses in this area. While some people, including guests, have commented that Kafein is out of place, we think it’s actually in the perfect space. When we took the place we did not do the classical business plan and research the location, calculate a forecasted profit, hire consultants, etc.. We saw potential in this old-clothing shop and decided to go for it. Our neighbors are mostly men’s clothing shops with interesting-styled displays that are irregularly frequented since Shawarby Street is no longer the shopping center that it once was. In some senses it makes sense not to put a café/gallery in the midst of such shops, but we rather like the idea that Kafein is in the middle of all of this. Each day we have pedestrians stare at the café and the guests sitting in our open-air space. Shouting out and telling them that they are welcome, “etfadalou,” however, breaks down the initial shock from the unfamiliarity of the space and actually changes their entire interaction with it. This interface and the slight discomfort accompanied by the meeting of spaces and people is actually a bit exciting.

What are your plans for the future?

We are actually currently working on opening up a second branch in Zamalek. We did not intend to open two cafés, but by chance we found an amazing spot in Zamalek that could not be left. The space there is a bit larger and we will have a descent-sized kitchen, which will allow us to have a full food menu beside the beverage one. We know that Zamalek is overburdened with cafés so we are designing the space to be both a café and a particular type of cultural center. We also hope to be producing more of our own products such as bakery goods and juices in the near future. For Downtown, we are looking forward to our upcoming art exhibitions and a continued engagement with our community.


Hassan Khan Exhibition and Kodak Passage is a media partner in this year’s D-CAF. During the festival several posts will appear on the blog covering some of its venues and events.


A historical perspective and urban context*

Pedestrian passageways are a prominent feature of downtown Cairo, having been influenced by the Parisian arcades of late nineteenth century.  Today many of these passageways and gaps between buildings have been transformed into back alleyways, housing multiple activities and uses that are often invisible from the street. Coffee-shops and bars, restaurants and food-stands, crafts and small workshops, mosques and prayer corners, stationary shops and bookstores, galleries and antique stores have taken up occupation, while many passageways remain closed, uninhabited or dilapidated.

Kodak Passage is both an exemplary and exceptional space. What used to be a narrow dead-end service alleyway between Adly and Abdel Khaliq Tharwat Streets, through a 1920s art deco ensemble (now owned and managed by al-Ismaelia), was turned into a pedestrian passage as part of a larger experiment of pedestrianized zones Downtown during the 1990s. Kodak store, labs and garage/warehouse used to occupy the western flank of the passage, while Café de Brasil occupied the central bay of the eastern side, and remains today, though shuttered.  Surrounded by a number of emerging art, film and design spaces (CIC, Cimatheque, and CLUSTER), the passage was identified by CLUSTER as a rare opportunity to introduce to this end of Downtown a pop-up gallery space, and to engage art interventions that may serve as a catalyst for urban development and revitalization of surrounding buildings, shops and passageways.

The current exhibition space occupies four different storefronts along the western side of Kodak Passage, ranging in their size, clear height and physical conditions. Setting up these spaces required major architectural renovation and upgrade of the infrastructure, in addition to installing the necessary exhibition walls, lighting system and other audio-visual elements. The exhibition curation, design and architectural renovation were undertaken by CLUSTER and the project was produced by Orient Productions and Downtown Contemporary Arts Festival (D-CAF). The two-month long renovations included the input of different national and international installation crews, as well as direct input from the artist. The Hassan Khan exhibition was designed and curated by CLUSTER to present a procession of exhibition spaces, interjecting the artist’s ouevre amidst the public and pedestrian activities of the arcade.

Hassan Khan exhibition opening: March 30, 6pm

Exhibition schedule: March 30 - April 26, 12pm – 8pm

Koday Passageway, 20 Adly Street, Downtown Cairo

For more information:

The Hassan Khan exhibition is part of this year’s D-CAF Festival. D-CAF has over the past two years worked diligently to reinvent public space, changing perceptions, and as a result drawing in the public for a renewed interaction.




*Text and Photos courtesy of CLUSTER

Zawya: a downtown screen for arthouse cinema is a media partner in this year’s D-CAF. During the festival several posts will appear on the blog covering some of its venues and events.


Zawya is a brand new screen in downtown bringing an exciting program of films that would not be showing at the city’s commercial multiplexes. This year Zawya is also a venue for some screenings that are part of Downtown Contemporary Art Festival’s program. The screen is located in the back of Cinema Odeon off Talaat Harb Street. Look out for the entrance with colorful zigzag lines superimposed with neon lights depicting Zawya’s beautiful logo designed by Valerie Arif. The entrance and lobby were given a makeover designed by Yazaan El-Zo’bi. Cairobserver sent Youssef Shazli from Misr International Films some questions to get a sense of what the Zawya space is about and how it fits within the city’s cultural landscape. 

Tell us about the concept of Zawya, how did it start and what is it about.

The idea was there a long time ago but the execution started roughly a year ago. Marianne Khoury’s dream was to have a permanent space to screen alternative films all year long. A lot of people might not know but there was a first attempt a few years ago called Cinemania in City Stars. It was basically the same idea but wasn’t very successful. Maybe the timing wasn’t right, neither the location. But with 6 successful editions of the Panorama, we felt like it was finally time to give it another try. The idea was to have a permanent space operating all year long that screens films that do not have access to the commercial market. The goal is simply to have these films seen on the big screen and to encourage people to start going to the movies again. We started with one screen - Cinema Odeon - but are hoping to expand in the future and have many Zawyas across the country.

Tangier has had a great success with Cinematheque de Tanger, is it on your radar at all as a reference or is Zawya trying to establish a different model?

I don’t know much about Cinematheque de Tangers to be honest. But from the little I know I’d say we have a slightly different model. We are just a cinema with the sole purpose of having films screened whereas cinematheques in general are multipurpose spaces and offer other services related to the cinema. I’d say maybe that what Cimatheque is doing in Cairo is closer to that.


How did you end up in Cinema Odeon and how does Zawya as an initiative tie into the cinema’s regular program/space

When we decided to really make this happen, the first step was to find the right space for it. We felt that it was very important for us to be based Downtown, at least in the beginning. The first venue that came to mind was Cinema Odeon. When I went to re-visit the space, I immediately saw the potential. The fact that we could have our own space, cafeteria, ticket booth and entrance/exit was a great plus. So we tried convincing the owners to give it a shot and it worked. We did a few renovations and tried to create an atmosphere that could go well with the nature of the project. We also tried to make it look like there aren’t two other screens operating on the other side. In terms of programming, our screen acts independently from the two others. We have our own program and they have theirs. 

Tell us more about the physical space in the cinema run by Zawya 

The space we are using was completely untouched for years. It was supposed to act as the cinema’s secondary cafeteria but was not running. The entrance/exit doors we are using were originally the cinema’s emergency exits but were locked for years. As I said, we did some minor renovations to change the general feel of the space. But there were a lot of constraints (financial) but also because we do not own the cinema and there are things that we weren’t allowed to change. The theater we run has a capacity of 170 seats, which is decent. Bigger theaters can be intimidating sometimes.



Zawya comes to downtown at a time of increased cultural activity, you’re already partnering with several others such as D-CAF.. How does Zawya fit within downtown’s transforming arts and culture landscape and what future plans or ideas for further collaborations do you have

We are trying to partner up with as many spaces/institutions/initiatives/groups as we can. D-CAF came at a great time and will hopefully be the beginning of a long term partnership. As much as downtown spaces have been contributing significantly to the theater, visual art and music scene, we hope that Zawya can do the same for the film scene. Aside from our own program, our theater can serve as a venue for many others, which is something very much part of our plan. We are also working closely with similar initiatives such as Cimatheque who are planning to open soon.

Downtown has many unused cinemas, particularly the Emad Eddin area; do you think alternative programming could be one way to salvage these unused historic structures?

It might be too early to answer this question. I’d wait and see how it goes in Cinema Odeon before reaching any conclusions. But what is sure is that as opposed to multiplexes, some of these old cinemas are beautiful (as opposed to Odeon which was renovated in the 90s) and would serve as great venues for arthouse cinema. The problem is that it would be very costly to renovate and equip these theaters with the latest digital technology.

Tell us about the program for the coming period, what should we expect this year?

The program is basically split in two: we have the theatrical releases, which is the main bulk of our program. It basically means that films are screened on a regular basis for a minimum of a week and a maximum of three weeks (depending on the box office) as regular cinemas operate. The second part of the program is dedicated to special screenings/events. These would normally see film screened once or twice and are usually followed by a discussion or a Q&A session. We also have our Education & Cinema program, which encourages schools and universities to attend our screenings and adopts a more pedagogical approach (workshops and masterclasses are always an option). We are trying to create a balance between local/Arab and international films. We are also planning for 2 or 3 big events, which we are very excited about.


To learn more about Zawya visit the site of Misr International Film and “Like” Zawya’s Facebook page to stay connected.

Urban Visions program brings contemporary dance to the streets is a media partner in this year’s D-CAF. During the festival several posts will appear on the blog covering some of its venues and events.




Consistently one of D-CAF’s most popular programs, Urban Visions returns this year, bringing new choreography to public spaces in Downtown Cairo and Alexandria. Working to increase the visibility and appeal of contemporary dance in Egypt, the program aims to engage the general public by placing contemporary art within an everyday urban landscape. Unsuspecting passersby become curious audience members, who are presented with work that challenge their ideas of what contemporary art is, and where it fits in our modern lives.

The program kicks off this year with a performance choreographed by Egyptian dance studio Ezzat Ezzat. Invisible Boundaries toys with the idea of a third dimension, and deals with the abstract, literally invisible boundaries that we confine ourselves to, or sometimes create for ourselves.

Back for the second consecutive year, Dutch duo The100Hands have created a new, site-specific piece, Running Nucleus, which deals with the concept of resilience and looks at communities, connection, and dependency. The piece will be performed along with Egyptian dancers, who have been rehearsing with The100Hands during the weeks prior to the festival.

Dealing with the intricacies of love, Remind Me, Choreographed by Lotte Sigh (Denmark) expresses the humanity, brutality, and tenderness of the relationship between a man and a woman. The piece features two dancers, and premiered in 2008 at Dansecenen in Copenhagan.

A more complex performance follows, with Ex Nihilo’s Mashy (France), about a group of men and women who become involved in a game of challenges, pulling in passersby who become part of the performance. The show is a co-production of Ex Nihilo and Nassim El Raqs, and has been created with the cooperation of the Cairo Contemporary Dance Center (CCDC) and the Institut Francais Egypt as well as the Institut Franceais/Ville de Marsaeille.

The final piece of the program, an Egyptian- American collaboration titled I’ll Dance While You’re Dancing and We Will Have Danced Together,  uses handheld technology to allow the performers to respond to one another’s movements across time and space.

This year’s performances will take place in front the Egyptian stock exchange (Borsa), one of last year’s popular locations, as well as Alfy Bey street, and the American University in Cairo’s GrEEK campus on Mohammed Mahmoud street. For the first time this year, these performances will also travel to Alexandria, where they will be performed at the statue of Ismail, beside the Roman Theatre.

All performances will take place on several nights, allowing for more exposure of the general public to these works.

For more information on our programs, visit our press website,

Main website:

Facebook: Dcaf.egypt



Virtual Egyptian Contemporary Art Museum (VECAM)


في ١٧ مارس أطلقت مجموعة من الفنانين البصريين والأدائيين والعاملين بقطاع الثقافة المصرية البيان التأسيسي  لمشروع

متحف الفن المصري المعاصر الافتراضي
(Virtual) Egyptian Contemporary Art Museum

كانت الفنانة هالة القوصي قد أطلقت دعوة على صفحات الفيسبوك لجموع الفنانين البصريين والأدائيين والمهتمين بالفنون في مصر للتفاعل مع فكرتها والتي تتلخص في إنشاء متحف للفن المعاصر في الفضاء الافتراضي كفعل نقدي لأداء المؤسسة الثقافية الرسمية في مصر. في ما يلي ما جاء في البيان

إيمانا منا

بأن الثورة ثورة خيال في الأساس وأن الفعل الثوري ليس قاصرا على الشوارع والميادين وإنما يمتد منها إلى أماكن العيش والعمل؛

وأن أي حديث عن أحقية المثقف أو نخبوية مركزه هو حديث بالي ولا يعبر إلا عن موقف متعالي وليس من روح التغيير في شيء. فالأحقية تكتسب ولا تملى على أحد؛

وأن للفنان دور مهم في المجتمع الذي يعيش فيه؛ تزداد أهميته في فترات التغيير الجذرية كتلك التي نمر بها الآن؛

وأن على الفنان واجب أن يقود بالقدوة وأن يبادر بإعمال معاول التغيير في سبيل تحقيق مناخ مجتمعي قائم على الحرية والتعددية وتكافؤ الفرص والشفافية

وتصديقا على 

أن الثورة قامت في مقام أول على الفساد المؤسساتي وسوء استخدام الموارد العامة؛

وحيث أن كل محاولات لإحداث تغيير حقيقي وملموس على مستوى المؤسسات تعثرت في خطواتها الأولى؛ و أهدرت طاقات عظيمة في شجب ونقد وغضب وحنق وتبرم واستياء ومقالات وعرائض وشكاوى دون أي تغيير مأمول؛

فإستوجب أن نعيد التفكير بشكل مختلف ونعمل الخيال

هذه الدعوة دعوة عامة لجميع الفنانين المصريين وغير المصريين المقيمين والعاملين في مصر في مجالي الفنون البصرية والأدائية إلى الإنضمام إلى مبادرة إنشاء

متحف الفن المصري المعاصر الافتراضي
(Virtual) Egyptian Contemporary Art Museum - VECAM

سيضطلع المتحف بكل أدوار متحف للفن المعاصر؛
كفعل ثوري نقدي لأداء قطاع الثقافة الرسمي وذلك في المقام الأول

لتحقيق أعلى قدر من الشفافية والمحاسبة والنقد الذاتي؛
وإرساء مفاهيم المعاصرة والقيمة والاستحقاق وتكافؤ الفرص؛
والتأريخ بشكل منظم وشامل لحركة الفنون البصرية والأدائية المعاصرة في مصر

من خلال نظام قائم على العضوية العامة لجموع الفنانين البصريين والأدائيين وفي الأساس على الإنتخاب الشفاف من خلال قوانين ولوائح معلنة  وعلى نظام دوري لتقييم للأداء والفعالية

سيقوم المتحف ككيان إفتراضي بتفعيل شراكات مع مؤسسات ثقافية محلية وعربية وعالمية لتبادل الخبرات والموارد

سيعزز المتحف مفهوم الدعم المحلي الخاص والشعبي للفنون
سيخلق المتحف مساحة نقاش مجتمعي حول دور الفنون البصرية والأدائية في المجتمع
سيقدم المتحف عروض متجددة من مجموعته الإفتراضية والتي سيضاف إليها سنويا بشكل إفتراضي بعد دعوة عامة لجموع الفنانين بالتقدم إلى معرض المقتنيات السنوي العام
 سيكون للمتحف مكتبة إفتراضية ومحل وحلقة نقاش مفتوحة حول المعاصرة في الفنون ومساحة للمشروعات الجديدة

سيتواجد المتحف مبدأيا على صفحة في الفيسبوك وسيلي ذلك نقله إلى موقع إليكتروني منفصل مع الإبقاء على صفحة الفيسبوك للتواصل

في مرحلة متوسطة سيشترك المتحف دوريا في فعاليات خارج الفضاء الإفتراضي في ضيافة شركاء محليين وعالميين

في مرحلة متقدمة يصبو متحف الفن المصري المعاصر (الإفتراضي) إلى التواجد بشكل مادي كأول متحف قائم في الأساس على الدعم الشعبي

وقد تكون منذ جمع ما يزيد على المائة توقيع على البيان الأساسي مجموعة عمل مفتوحة على الفيسبوك

وقد بدأ أعضاء المجموعة بالفعل في النقاش والتداول حول شكل الهيكل التنظيمي للمتحف. ويتوقع المشاركون في المشروع أن يفتتح المتحف فعليا في نهاية بدعوة لجوع الفنانين للتقدم بأعمال لمعرضه العام الأول

Abandoned building said to be a former hospital, Helwan
film still © Hala Elkoussy

Old NDP headquarters, Tahrir Square
© Hala Elkoussy

[It is not a far fetched dream to see the Museum housed in one of Cairo’s many abandoned buildings. The images are to fire up the imaginary only and are not concrete suggestions for venues.]

On the 17th of March, 2014, group of visual and performing artists together with active members of the Artistic Community in Egypt launched the founding statement for the Virtual Egyptian Contemporary Art Museum (VECAM).

Artist Hala Elkoussy started up an open call a week before to artists and workers in the Cultural field in Egypt to react to her idea that centers around the creation of a virtual contemporary museum as a critical act against the workings of the institutional cultural sector in Egypt.

According to the Founding Statement, the virtual museum will function like a real museum. It will hold exhibitions, build up a collection, provide a platform for discussion on the role of the Arts in a changing society and support interesting artistic projects.

In a medium stage of its existence, the museum will be hosted by real regional and international institutions.

In the long run, the Elkoussy foresees a real museum built up with the support of fundraising events and of Egyptian philanthropists and patrons of the Arts, for it to become the first institution totally funded by the public.
Over a hundred signatures were gathered and since then a working group has been set up on an open Facebook page where interested parties can take part in the discussions that are well underway. First on the agenda this week is the administrative structure of the virtual institution.

Downtown Contemporary Arts Festival: Press Release is a media partner in this year’s D-CAF. During the festival several posts will appear on the blog covering some of its venues and events.


Bringing in artists from all over the world, unearthing local and regional talent, and featuring six diverse programs, the third edition of the Downtown Contemporary arts Festival (D-CAF) promises to fill the three weeks between 20th March and 11th April with an eclectic selection of independent art events catering to all tastes.

A production of Studio Emad Eddin, D-CAF works to reinvigorate Downtown by bringing all genres of arts to its street corners, entering and revitalising spaces and venues that have been neglected for years, and acting as a catalyst for the creative energy increasingly emanating from this part of the city.

This year’s inaugural event will feature a screening of Salma El Tarzi’s film “Underground/On the Surface,” which shows glimpses of the lives of Shaabi Musicians on the rise, Okka and Ortega, followed by the first act of D-CAF’s music program, a performance by Dutch-South African duo Skip&Die.

The festival’s six programmes – Performing Arts, Music, Visual Arts, Film, Urban Visions, and Special Events, will feature world premieres, international collaborations, as well as a special visual arts survey show.

Curated by D-CAF’s artistic director, Ahmed El Attar, the Performing Arts segment of D-CAF 2014 brings dynamic international and locals performances to the Falaki Theatre and Hotel Viennoise, amongst other venues. These include the dance installation Art of Movement, which will prompt audiences to question their perceptions of reality and C’est du Chinois, a performance that challenges language barriers. Stemming from the region, It Happened Tomorrow by Syrian theatre company, Damascus Theater Lab (DTL) will show at Talee’a Small Theatre, while Violence Lointaine, directed by Omar Ghayatt (Egypt) will make its world premiere at Talee’a Large Theatre. Egyptian choreographer, Mohamed Shafik, will also present his piece An House Empty of Hospitality for the first time in the Arab world.

On the hunt for musicians who draw on different music structures and genres to create new sounds, D-CAF’s music curator, Mahmoud Refaat, has compiled a music programme that offers experimental, psychedelic, new pop and electro shaabi concerts. Kasr El Nil theatre, once a platform for such renowned singers as Umm Kulthoum, will host this year’s music program highlight, a concert by Lebanese singer Yasmine Hamdan, followed by the sounds of vocalist Fayrouz Karawya and music producer Ismael, who will be debuting their new collaborative project. The theme of collaboration features heavily in this year’s music program, with a concert by London’s RINSE.FM and Cairo’s 100Copies, performing under the name ‘Cairo Calling.’

Internationally celebrated Hassan Khan dominates the Visual Arts programme this year, with a major survey of his work exhibited within the Kodak Passage on Adly Street, which underwent extensive renovations by CLUSTER in preparation for its debut as an exhibition space. Curated by Beth Stryker, the exhibited works range from the start of Khan’s career in the mid 90s until today. The exhibition, which opens on March 30, exemplifies what D-CAF strives to accomplish; bringing art into public spaces and, through that process, applying new perspective to the streets of Downtown Cairo.

The shorts film programmer at International Francophone Film Festival of Namur (Belgium), Hervé Le Phuez, will curate D-CAF’s 2014 film program; his selection of strictly francophone cinema, made up of five features and nine shorts, hail from a number of countries including Romania, Switzerland, Canada and Portugal.

Bringing site-specific dance performances to Downtown’s streets, the Urban Visions programme has been a unique, and highly successful, feature of D-CAF in past editions. This year, the festival welcomes back last year’s Dance duo, The100Hands (Netherlands) debuting their collaborative piece, Running Nucleus. D-CAF also happily welcomes contributors to the 2012 edition, Ex Nihilo (France) with their piece, Mashy. The programme will also feature the choreography of local talent, Ezzat Ismail, who will present his piece, Invisible Boundaries.  Taking place in front of El Borsa (the Egyptian Stock Exchange), on Alfy Bey Street and at the GrEEK Campus, most of these performances will also be presented in Alexandria. 

Finally, the Special Events programme offers a mash-up of events ranging from a concert by the French group, Jazz Nomads, titled La voix est libre, to a four part discussion series under the banner of Is Art Important? (Iraq/Syria).

In a bid to encourage local aspiring filmmakers, D-CAF’s smART Mobile Film Festival will showcase the culmination of a series of workshops held in four cities across Egypt, where participants produced one to three minute films. A selection of the best films will be screened in special booths around Downtown during the festival.

D-CAF’s final week will bring the focus back to regional artists. Dubbed ‘Middle East Focus’ the week spanning 3-7 April will feature Arab artists from all over the region with the purpose of showcasing regional talent in all its forms to international festival programmers, who have been invited to D-CAF expressly for this purpose.

On the brink of its third edition, D-CAF continues to engage with, and contribute to, the independent arts scene both locally and regionally, and for the three weeks of its duration, it will transform Downtown Cairo into a cultural buffet of visual art, music, dance, theatre, and film, waiting to be consumed by eager audiences.

You can find further information on D-CAF through our online platforms:

Main website:

Facebook: Dcaf.egypt


Twitter: @dcafFestival

Instagram: DCAFFEST

Lara El Gibaly

PR Officer

Downtown Contemporary Arts Festival (D-CAF)

20th March - 11th April 2014

Cairo on the toilet: a brief history


[Advertisement from 1939 for a company selling and installing modern bathrooms]

Domestic space, in Egypt and elsewhere, underwent enormous transformations for a larger segment of urban society from the beginning of the 20th century. While innovations in modern plumbing began to become available to the elite in their palaces and residences in the mid to late 19th century, the majority of society still had to do things the old way (bucket of water for washing and go outside for #2). However, within the span of a decade in the beginning of the 20th century modern plumbing was accessible to more people. Already buildings built during the boom of 1897-1907 in Cairo were equipped but those were not where the majority of Egyptians lived. By the 1920s things pick up quickly and pipes were added to older homes across the city while newer buildings built by and for the middle and working class began to have more access, still it was considered a luxury. Remember that the hammam was still an important feature in the city and every neighborhood had several such spaces.

Improved hygiene at home and rational domestic space appear in the popular press and popular culture as evidence of good manners and class. For example, advertising for modern bathrooms proliferates in the 1930s onwards. At the same time popular magazines were saturated with advertising for household items as well as personal hygiene products such as Nabulsi Farouq, a popular soap named after the king. In a popular ad circulating in the 1940s, Egypt’s two leading performers Muhammad Abdel Wahab and Om Kulthoum are pictured along with testimonies to the product at hand: “Naboulsi Farouq is an enjoyable and surprising product that attests to Egyptian industry,” a signed statement by Om Kulthoum reads.


In a 1944 film, “Bullet to the Heart,” Abdel Wahab performed one of his most famous musical scenes entirely in a modern bathroom as the star undressed and sang in the bath. That particular scene and song are essentially a celebration of modern plumbing. Yet this was a celebration of modernity as afforded to a particular class inhabiting a particular kind of dwelling. Middle and upper classes were to desire and therefore pay for such amenities and perhaps hire an architect along the way to provide the plans for such spaces. A modern bathroom was a sign of social refinement and class mobility.


In the early 1950s modern sewage and plumbing were still not available to vast segments of society particularly outside big urban centers. During that decade the state invested heavily in sanitation, sewage and water infrastructure. Housing projects across the country built by the state introduced many to the modern bathroom for the first time. The state also  manufactured toilets, sinks and other household items for the modern Egyptian family. Such products were sold at reduced prices in showrooms across the country. The toilet became a national project and a symbol of developmentalism.

The streets belong to us


 على محمد

الشارع مقفول، مفيش دخول من هنا
ماشى من هنا ليه؟ رايح فين؟
ممنوع الوقفة هنا بعد السور لو عايز تقف
محدش يقعد على النجيله اللى فى الشارع هنا، التعليمات كده
افتحولنا محطة السادات بقى كفايه عطلة
مش هتعرف تدخل من هنا قافلين عشان القسم

دى عبارات ممكن تسمعها فى الشارع لو كان حظك سعيد و لقيت حد يكلم معاك و غالبا مش هيقدملك تفسير لأن دى تعليمات، فى الأغلب مش هتلاقى حد لكن هتلاقى حاجات زى اللى فى الصورة اللى فوق يعنى جدار خرسانى، أسلاك شائكة، حواجز حديد، سواتر رمليه…………..إلخ

الحق فى المدينة هى فكرة و شعار قدمهما هنرى ليفيفر عام 1968 فى كتابه الحق فى المدينة و لخص فكرته فى أنها طلب لتغيير و تجديد المدخل للحياة الحضرية فى المدينة
a “demand…[for] a transformed and renewed access to urban life”
وصف دافيد هارفى فكرة الحق فى المدينة على أنه أبعد من الحرية الفردية للوصول للموارد الحضرية بأنه الحق فى تغيير أنفسنا بتغيير المدينة ، الحرية لصناعة و اعادة صناعة أنفسنا و مدننا كأحد أهم و أغلى و مؤخرا أحد أكثر حقوق الإنسان المهملة

شوارع المدينة و فراغتها العامة هى المساحة التى تتفاعل و تتلاقى فيها كل طبقات المجتمع.ما نشاهده يوميا فى شوارع و طرقات المدينة هو انعكاس للسياسات المختلفة للدولة التى من المفترض أن تصب فى صالح المواطن و تعمل على تيسير شئون حياته اليوميه من تنقلات و غيره. المدينة بمختلف أركانها من فراغات عامة و شوارع و ميادين ….. إلخ هى ملك للشعب، ملك للمواطن الذى يفترض أن يقوم بإختيار مجموعة من المسئوليين لإدارة الشئون المختلفة للمدينة بدئا من ممثلى المحليات انتهائا الى رأس النظام على أن تكون الخطوط العريضة للسياسة العامة للدولة انعكاسا لرغبات المواطن و طموحاته. المواطن المالك الوحيد و الحقيقى لهذا الوطن و ليس العكس. من حق هذا المواطن أن يشارك فى صنع القرار و أن يكون له تمثيل مباشر فى المحليات و المجالس الشعبية و أن يعرف على أى أساس يتم اتخاذ قرارات مصيرية تنعكس على حياته اليومية و من المسئول عن تقرير مصير هذه الفراغات و الممتلكات العامة و هذه الشوارع، كم من ميزانية الدولة يتم صرفه فى أعمال الصيانة، هل هذه هى الطريقه المثلى أم لا؟  من المسئول عن فتح أو اغلاق طريق أو ما شابه؟ من الممثل الفعلى للمواطن فى المحليات الذى يمكن أن يعكس متطلباته؟ هل المدينة حقا ملك لقاطنيها أم فى بلادنا هى ملك جهات أخرى؟

استقطاع أجزاء من المدينة

الحديقة الدولية، مدينة نصر، القاهرة


نموذج لضم الشارع لأحد المبانى العسكرية التى تخدم المدنيين، تم اقامة سور و بوابة و تحول الشارع من ملكية عامة للدولة يتم استخدامه من قبل المواطنين يوميا إلى جزء من المبنى و ملكية خاصة

محيط قصر الاتحاديه، الكوربه، القاهرة



فى البداية تم ضم جانب واحد من امتداد شارع ابراهيم اللقانى فى اتجاه الكوربه و إنشاء بوابة حديد و أصبح أحد اتجاهات الشارع جزء من قصر الاتحاديه


بعد ذلك بفترة قصيرة تم غلق الشارع ببلوكات خرسانة أمام السور و البوابة السابق إضافتها و أصبح الشارع مغلق فى الإتجاهين، الشارع  يعتبر المنفذ الأخير لتجنب زحام شارع بغداد و الكوربه والوصول إلى صلاح سالم و يخدم نسبه كبيرة من سكان مصر الجديدة

شارع القصر العينى، القاهرة



بعد غلق شارع محورى مثل القصر العينى و الشوارع المحيطة لفترة أكثر من عامين تم استبدال الحاجز الخرسانى ببوابات معدنية أشبه بالمعابر الحدودية  ذلك بالإضافة لاستمرار الحوائط الخرسانية فى محيط مجلس الوزراء و عدة أماكن فى الجانب الأخر من الشارع بجاردن سيتى. البوابة و من قبلها الحائط الخرسانى تتسبب فى تكدس المرور يوميا بالشارع و تحويل حركة المرور يسارا و دورانها حول البوابه حتى تصل إلى الميدان

سيدى جابر، الأسكندريه


تم غلق شارع المشير و هو أحد الشوارع الرئيسية بالمدينة يخدم كثافة مرورية عالية من طريق الحريه حتى طريق الكورنيش و تم تحويل مسار السيارات من بعد طريق الترام ليلتقى مع كثافة مرورية قادمة من شارع بورسعيد و تحويلهم جميعا لأحد الشوارع الضيقه المؤدية للكورنيش بإعتباره المخرج الوحيد المتبقى للعبور إلى الجانب الأخر

 ميدان وابور المياه، الأسكندريه


فى البدايه تم غلق أحد الإتجاهات و الان تم غلق الشارع بالكامل لمجرد وجود قسم شرطة فى أول الشارع، الشارع فى الصباح يخدم كثافة مرورية و طلبة مدارس و مشاه بإعتباره المدخل شبه الوحيد للحى من طريق الحريه و البديل يخلق أكثر من عنق زجاجة فى الشوارع المحيطة

ترام مدينة نصر و مصر الجديدة، القاهرة



طريق الترام بدلا من إمداده بعربات جديدة و تشجيع المواطنين على استخدامها لتخفيف الزحام و استغلاله كوسيلة مواصلات بإعتبار القضبان و الشبكات هى الجزء الأصعب و الأكثر كلفة و العربات هى الجزء الأرخص و الأسهل يتم تغطيتها بالرمال تمهيدا لتحويلها لرصيف أو استغلالها كجزء من الطريق، بعد ذلك تم خلع القضبان بالفعل و خلع البنية التحتية بالكامل و تركها على جانب الطريق

هذه التحولات هى ملاحظات سريعة ليوميات مواطن يتجول فى المدينة ذهابا و إيابا، بعض الظواهر و التحولات التى تم رصدها على سبيل المثال و ليس الحصر


 بدأت ظاهره المنع أو الغلق منذ اندلاع الثورة خاصة فى الأماكن التى شهدت أحداث عنف مثل محمد محمود و مجلس الوزراء و أحداث الاتحاديه و غيرها. ظهرت فكرة الحائط الخرسانى المكون من بلوكات أسمنتية تحول دون الوصول إلى مبنى معين أو تغلق شارع معين بأكمله و تعوق معها حركة المرور و المشاه. الغريب أن وجود بعض هذه البلوكات لم يعد له سبب و لكنه متروك فقط لعدم الاهتمام برفعه و ليس أكثر مثل بعض الشوارع أمام نادى هليوبليس. مؤخرا أصبح الغلق بالحواجز المعدنية و أكياس الرمال خصوصا حول جميع أقسام الشرطة التى أصبحت كابوسا يعرقل حركه المرور فى أى شارع يمر بها، يتم تحويل حركة المرور حولها و فى حالة وجود مبنى أكثر أهمية يمكن غلق محيط المبنى بأكمله بما فى ذلك الشوارع المؤديه المنازل المحيطة. الغلق ليس فقط للشوارع و لكن أيضا لمحطات مترو الأنفاق. يمكن تخيل العناء الذى يتكبده مستخدمى المترو يوميا نتيجة غلق محطة محورية مثل محطة السادات و حجم الضغط على محطة رمسيس كحل وحيد للتحويل بين خطى المترو

الرصيف ليس للمشاه

 الأسلاك الشائكه هى السمه المميزه للأرصفه فى مصر مع الحواجز الخرسانيه المنحنيه المرتفعه و لعل شارع الثوره و الميرغنى و مناطق كثيره بمصر الجديده و مدينة نصر مثال صارخ على ذلك فى الفتره الأخيره. غير متاح استخدام الأرصفه للمشاه بهذه المناطق بل قد يمتد التعدى لأجزاء من الشارع لتجد نفسك مضطرا للمشى بجانب السيارات و أنت ترى الرصيف و لكن لا تستطيع استخدامه. فى بعض الأحيان يتم استخدام هذه الحواجز لخلق سور أمام السور على حساب الرصيف ثم وضع حاجز معدنى أمام السور الجديد على حساب حاره من الطريق.  و هو أحد الأشياء الغير مفهومه فإذا كان السور الأصلى لحماية مبنى معين فلم بناء سور أمام السور على حساب مستخدمى الطريق من مشاه و مركبات

الشارع جزء من المبنى

يمكن أن تستيقظ صباحا لتجد أحد الشوارع و قد اختفى تماما و أصبح جزء من مبنى قائم. يتم وضع بوابة حديدية مع سور مبانى أو سور معدنى و يصبح الشارع جزء لا يتجزأ من المبنى و فى هذه الحالة ليس فقط سور على السور و لكن بوابة على البوابة و مشاه و مرور يبحثون لأنفسهم عن بديل للوصول لمقصدهم. عندما يتم وضع بوابة أو ضم جزء من المدينة فهذا يمثل تعدى على حقوق المواطن فى مدينته و فى أى مكان يطبق فيه أدنى درجات القانون يجب محاسبة و معرفة من المسئول و إلا أصبح استباحة الطرق العامه أمرا عاديا و لكل حجته. فإذا كانت الدولة تفعل ذلك إقرارا للأمن فأولى لنا أن نستوعب أن يتعدى بائع على الطريق من أجل قوت يومه، ينبغى للدولة أن تكون مثالا فى تطبيق القانون و الحفاظ على حق المواطن فى الشارع و حق المشاه فى الرصيف و ليس العكس

محاولات تطويع المدينة باستقطاع أجزاء منها لظروف أمنية هو استمرار لسياسات فرض السيطرة من الدوله عن طريق تقييد الفراغ العام و سلب حق المواطن فى المدينة سواء بوضع حواجز أو أسوار أو غلق شوارع و محوها من ذاكرة المدينة و مع الوقت و بالتبعية يتم محوها من ذاكرة المواطن فيعتاد على ذلك. ما حدث فى يناير 2010 أن الشعب استعاد مدينته فى التحرير، مدينة لا يوجد بها حدود و لا عزل طبقى، مدينة لا يوجد بها أسوار على الكوبرى ولا على الدائرى لحجب المناطق الفقيرة عن أعين المارة و لا بها مجتمعات مسورة لحماية الطبقات الغنية من تطفل الاخرين، مدينة لا يوجد بها بوابات حديدية على الميادين أشبه بالمعابر الحدودية. اليوم الدولة تعيد السيطرة من خلال إعادة هذا التقييد و وضع حواجز تزيد من تفتيت المدينة و المجتمع و تحجيم حركة الناس و حصارهم فى إطار ضيق. المشكلة تكمن فى عدم وجود اليات تمكن المواطن من تقرير مصير هذه الفراغات و كأن هناك حرب خفية بين الدولة و المواطن تقوم الدولة فيها  بفرض سيطرتها من خلال قرارات فوقية لا يتم إشراك المواطن فى أى مرحلة من مراحل اتخاذها و على الجانب الاخر لا يخضع متخذ القرار لأى الية من اليات المحاسبة فى حال تعارض هذه القرارات مع مصالح المواطن اليومية. يتم إتخاذ هذه القرارات فى الغرف المغلقة كما يسمونها و يفاجأ بها المواطن صباح كل يوم. هذا و حتى تعود المدينه لأهلها و حتى تكون القرارات على الأرض ترجمه لرغبات المواطن و ليس السلطه سيظل السؤال الشارع لمين؟ ….الشارع لنا

"The city may be dead;" Lefebvre seems to say, but "long live the city!"

7 documentaries about life in Cairo you need to watch


The documentary “The Square" has deservedly received much attention in recent months leading up to an Oscar nomination. In many ways the documentary is as much about Cairo as it is about the revolution. This is an opportunity to shine some light on other documentaries from recent years that also deal with particular aspects of life in Cairo. Here are 7 more documentaries you should consider watching:

Electro Chaabi (2013)

Electro Chaabi is a feature documentary by Hind Meddeb goes into the vibrant and enormously popular world of Chaabi music parties and festivals taking place in neighborhoods where the majority of Cairo’s population resides (so not in Zamalek or Maadi or wherever else expats and parachuting journalists hang out looking to write a story about life in Cairo). “We can tell the story of a street, that’s also politics.”

At Night They Dance (2010)

Also on the theme of nightlife in popular neighborhoods, At Night They Dance by Isabelle Lavigne and Stephane Thibault focuses more on female subjects, particularly belly dancers and their families. Like Electro Chaabi these directors went into Cairo’s urban and social life in ways that many of the city’s own middle and upper class residents would never venture and would rather dismiss this world and hide behind their bourgeois morality and standards of sexuality. A fascinating documentary not to be missed. You can watch it online here.

The Noise of Cairo (2012)

Focusing on the outpouring of creative energy in the early months after January 2011, The Noise of Cairo by Heiko Lange is a record of an early moment of cautious optimism in Cairo’s artistic life.

Forbidden (2011)

Director Amal Ramsis asks a poignant question in her documentary Forbidden: What is not forbidden in Egypt? In a police state red tape is everywhere from what to say and what to believe to where to walk and what to photograph. Even the city is lined with kilometers of steel in ways that do not facilitate movement or make any sense from the perspective of an urban planner but they are there to forbid people from feeling like citizens. You can watch the full film online here.

Garbage Dreams (2009)

Mai Iskandar’s Garbage Dreams remains one of the best documentaries made about life in Cairo. The film explores the lives of Zaballeen, the garbage collectors who also recycle nearly 80% of the waste they gather and trade the materials for manufacturing purposes. This community is essential to Cairo’s survival yet they have suffered over the years from state policies including the signing of multimillion dollar contracts with European companies to collect Cairo’s garbage rather than work with the community to improve their conditions and develop their trade. This is a classic that should be revisited.

Cairo Drive (2013)

Talking about traffic when Cairo comes up in conversation is like talking about fog or rain when London comes up in conversation. It happens, you can’t avoid it and people love to dwell on the topic. But there is something to it, on most days many of Cairo’s main roads are bumper to bumper in the absence of any serious strategic transport plan and in the absence of the most basic element of any traffic system: traffic lights. This film by Shereif ElKatsha "explores the country’s collective identity, inherent struggles, and the sentiments that lead through the historic changes taking place in Egypt today," by going into the streets and getting stuck in traffic.

Crop (2012)

This beautifully shot film, Crop, is co-directed by Johanna Domke and Marouan Omara. “The film reflects upon the impact of images in the Egyptian Revolution in 2011 and puts it in relation to the image politics of Egypt´s leaders. Instead of showing footage from the revolution, the film is shot entirely in the power domain of images - Egypt´s oldest and most influential state newspaper Al Ahram.”

Who pays more for the “public good”

 [حشد سكان الزمالك للمطالبة في حقهم في حي بدون تعديات وفي حقهم في الادلاء برآيهم في مشاريع قد تآثر على حيهم بصورة سلبية. مصدر الصورة]

دينا لطفي

منذ بداية القرن الماضي وحتي اللحظة، ومن أجل “الهدف الأسمي” و “الصورة الحضارية” و”المصلحة الوطنية”؛ أُغرقت قري بأكملها، وهُجّرت آلاف العائلات، وأزيلت آلاف المساكن، وتم اخلاء آلاف المواطنين بشكل قسري، ولم يتم تعويضهم بالشكل العادل. جدير بالذكر أن هذا ليس محل تقييم لتلك المشروعات، ولا بحث عمّا اذا كان هناك بدائل لتنفيذها بخسائر أقلّ، فكلٍ من المشروعات كان له مؤيديه ومعارضيه، وكلٌ له أسبابه، وإنما هذا تساؤل آخر؛ عن نظرة الدولة للمواطن. فهل حقاً جميع المواطنين بالنسبة للدولة سواء كما تنص الدساتير؟

أنشأ سكان حي الزمالك في أواخر ٢٠١١ مجلس إدارة جديد لجمعية الزمالك، ورغم تعدد أنشطتهم على المستوى المحلي، إلا أن قضية مترو الأنفاق كانت الأبرز. لعل توحُّد سكان حي الزمالك وقيامهم بالحشد وراء مطلب يعتبروه حقاً من حقوقهم هو أمر ايجابي لا شك، فانّ ما يسعي اليه المجتمع المدني والمهتمين بمجال العمران بشكل عام هو تعريف المواطنين بحقوقهم، وحثّهم علي المطالبة بها، وصياغة تطلعاتهم المتعلقة بمناطق سكنهم من أجل مشاركة فعّالة في صناعة القرار المحلي

وقد كان اعتراض سكان الزمالك الأساسي لأسباب فنية جديرة بالفعل بالدراسة، فهناك مخاوف حيال سلامة المباني السكنية القديمة والتي ربما تتأثر سلباً بسبب أعمال الحفر، حيث أن منها مباني كانت قد تأثرت انشائياً جراء زلزال 1992، كما أن ضيق شوارع الحي يمكن أن يتسبب في تكدس مروري شديد حال انشاء محطة، وهذه المخاوف تستدعي القلق والمطالبة باجراء دراسات متعددة التخصصات لضمان سلامة السكان، أو محاولات لطرح بدائل، أو ربما تستدعي بالفعل الاصرار علي فكرة التراجع عن المشروع برُمّته. أما اعتراض البعض علي أن هذه المحطة ستؤدي الي سهولة وصول الطبقات الأكثر فقرا لمنطقة الزمالك، فربما تغيب عنهم حقيقة “المدينة” والتي تكمن في فكرة الالتقاء ومشاركة المكان، وربما يغيب عنهم أيضاً حقيقة أن أغلبية سكان المدينة من الطبقة الفقيرة، وبالتالي فإن الالتقاء ومشاركة فراغ ما، أو وسيلة ما، هو أمر حتمي لا يمكن منعه

في يناير 2014 صرّح رئيس الهيئة القومية للأنفاق بالتوّصُّل الي “حلّ وسط” مع سكان حي الزمالك من خلال الابقاء علي مرور المترو أسفل الزمالك، وإلغاء افتتاح المحطة وترك أمرها للأجيال القادمة التي ربما تغيّر رأيها وتطالب بافتتاحها. وبعيداً عن تقييم هذا الحل، فإن اشراك السكان في مرحلة صناعة القرار؛ بدايةً من دعوتهم في مطلع 2012 بساقية الصاوي من قِبل هيئة المترو لعرض المشروع، ثم استجابة السلطة لرغبتهم في نهاية الأمر؛ هو أمر ايجابي علي آية حال

[سكان حي المنيب يعانون لسنوات طويلة من عدم توفير الدولة اي نوع من الخدمات او باقل حق لهم في المدينة. هل تعامل الدولة سكان المنيب وسكان الزمالك على سواء؟]

ولكن .. ما هو موقف السلطة تجاه تكاتف وحشد سكان المناطق الأكثر فقراً سعياً لتحقيق مطالبهم وطموحاتهم المتعلقة بشكل حياتهم. هل سيتم دعوتهم لعرض اي من المشروعات المتعلقة بمناطق سكنهم قبل اتخاذ اي اجراء؟ هل ستُعقد جلسات نقاش مجتمعي متعددة؟ هل سيُسمع لهم اذا ما اعترضوا علي المشروع؟ هل ستُجري محاولات جادة للتوصُّل لحلول تُرضي المواطنين؟ هل سيكون رد فعل السلطة تجاههم هو نفسه؟ أم سيختلف قليلا؟

في مطلع القرن العشرين أنشئ خزان أسوان من أجل التوسع في زراعة القطن لخدمة مصانع النسيج أثناء الاحتلال البريطاني لمصر. ارتفع منسوب المياه خلف السد حوالي 100متر ما أدّي الي غرق عشر قري نوبية دون سابق انذار، الا أن النوبيين اختاروا البقاء وأعادوا بناء منازلهم علي المرتفعات القريبة من القري الغارقة، فجاءت التعلية الأولي للخزان عام 1912 لتغرق ثماني قري جديدة، ثم التعلية الثانية عام 1933 والتي أغرقت عشر قري أخري. أدي خزان أسوان الي اغراق النوبة القديمة بمساكنها وآثارها وتاريخها، ومعاناة وتشريد آلاف الأسر، وقد قدمت الحكومة آنذاك تعويضات “لمنكوبي الخزان” كما وصفتهم، الا أنها كانت تعويضات هزيلة لا تضاهي المأساة التي تعرّضوا لها. تشتتت الأسر النوبية وهاجر العديد الي الشمال بحثاً عن الرزق بعد ما حل عليهم من فقر وجوع، الا أن حلم العودة ظل مع كل مغترب

أثناء الحقبة الناصرية بدأ التفكير في انشاء سد جديد يُستخدم في توليد الكهرباء لزيادة الانتاج، وتخزين المياه بسعة أكبر من خزان أسوان الذي لم يعُد يلبي تطّلُعات المرحلة الجديدة. بعد وضع أساس السد العالي عام 1960 ألقي جمال عبد الناصر خطبته الشهيرة أمام أهالي النوبة لطمأنتهم علي مصيرهم بعد اغراق السد لقراهم ومساكنهم مرة أخري، ووعدهم بعملية “تهجير” منظّمة، وتنمية زراعية وصناعية كبري ورخاء، وجمع شمل أهل النوبة في القري الجديدة بعد الشتات الذي عانوا منه سنوات طويلة. تم تهجير أهل النوبة في أكتوبر 1963 الي مدينة كوم امبو “الصحراوية” بعد أن كانت حياتهم علي ضفاف نهر النيل، وفوجئوا بأن المساكن الجديدة لم تكن مُعدّة لاستقبالهم، كما أنها لم تكن ملائمة لظروف معيشتهم من حيث المسطحات ومواد البناء المستخدمة، وهناك روايات متعددة تحكي عن معاناة الأهالي في مرحلة التهجير التي استغرقت حوالي مائتي وأربعين يوماً. اليوم وبعد مرور 51 عاما علي الهجرة لا يزال حال أهل النوبة كما هو، فلم يروا تنمية ولا رخاء ولا مقابل لتضحيتهم الكبري، بل أنهم لم يجدوا الا تجاهلا وتهميشاً، وما زالوا يحلمون بالعودة علي ضفاف نهر النيل. قدمّت الحكومات المتعاقبة منذ السبعينات وعوداً للنوبيين بالعودة الي مناطقهم القديمة علي ضفاف بحيرة ناصر، ومازالوا حتي هذه اللحظة يطالبون بحقّهم في العودة

[الارضيات البلاط هي كل ما تبقى من بيوت عائلات كثيرة تم تهجيرها قصريا واستغلال اجهزة الدولة الامنية لتخويفهم حتى يتركو بيوتهم كجزء من مشروع محافظ الاقصر لتحويل المدينة لمتحف مفتوح]

في عام 2006 بدأ التفكير في مشروع قومي لتحقيق تنمية شاملة في مدينة الأقصر وتحويلها الي متحف مفتوح، ومن أجل ذلك كان لابد من تنفيذ بعض الازالات و نزع ملكيات العديد من الأراضي التي كانت تعترض المشروع، الا أن السلطة لم تقم بتعويض المواطنين بشكل عادل حينئذ. بعد عدة سنوات وعقب ثورة الخامس والعشرين من يناير عام 2011 قام المتضررين بتنظيم مظاهرات حاشدة مطالبين بصرف التعويضات المالية للأضرار التي لحقت بهم جراء التطوير، وبعد عدة سنوات واستجابة للضغوط المستمرة من المتضررين؛ وتحديداً في مارس 2013؛ تم اعتماد 100 مليون جنيه لهذا الغرض

في عام 2007 أصدر مجلس الوزراء قرارًا بعدم تجديد عقود إيجار أراضي جزيرة “القرصاية” للأهالي أصحاب الحيازة القانونية، فيما اُعتبر تمهيدًا للاستيلاء عليها لصالح استثمارات خدمية وسياحية، تبعه محاولات السلطة استخدام القوة لإخلاء الجزيرة من أهلها بشكل قسري. لجأ الأهالي للقضاء الاداري وبالفعل في 2008 نجحوا في إلغاء القرار الوزراي، الا أن الحكومة قامت بالطعن علي هذا القرار، وفي 2010 تم رفض الطعن مؤكدةً على أحقية الأهالي في أراضي الجزيرة. وفي نوفمبر 2012 قامت القوات العسكرية بالانتشار في الجزيرة في محاولة جديدة لنزع الأرض من السكان وتم القبض علي عدد من الأهالي ومنهم من حوكم عسكرياً. وفي أغسطس 2013 أصدرت هيئة مفوضي الدولة تقريراً يوصي بأحقية الأهالي في الأرض

في أكتوبر 2011 أصدر محافظ القاهرة قرارا باستيلاء المحافظة على أرض رملة بولاق تمهيدا لتنفيذ اتفاق تعاون بين صندوق تطوير المناطق العشوائية ومحافظة القاهرة لتطوير المنطقة، وصنّف ملكية الأرض بها كـ”أملاك دولة”، الا أن محكمة القضاء الاداري قضت في أغسطس 2013 ببطلان هذا القرار

برغم الاختلاف بين طبيعة مشروع المحطة وبين هذه المشروعات، الا أن هذه الأحداث وغيرها تعاقبت واحدة تلو الأخري أثناء قراءة خبر استجابة الحكومة لسكان الزمالك. استجابت الحكومة بعد جولات ومشادات وحشد، وفي مواضع أخري قامت بمقاضاة المواطنين من أجل طردهم من مساكنهم أو نزع ملكية أراضيهم، زعما بأن ذلك من أجل الصالح العام، أمّا مشروع انشاء “محطة مترو”؛ والذي بالنظر في “صورته الأكبر” يشمل خدمة أصحاب المصلحة من سكان وطلبة جامعات وعاملين وزائرين للأنشطة الخدمية والتجارية والسياحية والمراكز الثقافية المنتشرة في أرجاء الحي؛ اضافة الي تأثيره علي السيولة المرورية؛ كان أمراً يحتمل عقد جلسات عدة من النقاش المجتمعي، واجراء محاولات للتوصّل لحلول وسط، ثم التراجع في نهاية الأمر

بعد الموافقة علي دستور 2014 الذي ينص صراحة علي  ”حظر التهجير القسري” (المادة 63)، و”كفالة الدولة للحق في المسكن الملائم” (المادة 78)، والتزام الدولة “بحق المواطن في حياة آمنة وتوفير الأمن والطمأنينة” (المادة 59)،  الا أنه وبتاريخ 18 فبراير 2014 تمت عملية ازالة مساكن واخلاء سكان “عشش التوفيقية” بعزبة النخل، وما زال الأهالي في انتظار كشوف الحصر التي تضم الأسر التي ستحصل علي وحدات سكنية بديلة، وفي 19 فبراير 2014  شنت مديرية أمن كفر الشيخ حملة مكبرة ضمت آلاف الجنود والجرافات في لإزالة منطقة “منشية فؤاد القبلية” بمدينة كفر الشيخ، والتي يقطنها آلاف الأسر من العاملين في تجميع «الخردة» و«القمامة» والـ« روبابيكيا»

علي مدار سنوات ما يزال المسئولين يُصرّون علي تكرار نفس الأساليب القديمة مع مواطني الطبقة الكادحة، ويقدمون حلولاً غير مستدامة لتحقيق مصلحة يزعمون أنها “أشمل”، وتتم عمليات الازالة بشكل مُفاجئ لا يراعي آدميتهم، كما أنها تتم “قبل” طمأنة الأهالي علي مصيرهم بشكل واقعي وجاد، ثم تنتشر مصطلحات مثل “50 متر أحسن من عِشّة”، “هما أصلا بانيين مخالف”، “بيشوّهوا المنظر”، “بيتعدّوا علي الأرض الزراعية”، “المفروض يحمدوا ربنا” علي تلك البدائل التي لا تراعي عددهم، ولا أسلوب حياتهم، ولا التأثير النفسي عليهم، ولا الحد الأدني من الحياة الكريمة، وكأن ليس من حقهم أن يحلموا بأكثر من ذلك، وإن لم يستطيعوا التأقلم مع هذه البدائل المفروضة عليهم؛ فهُم المُـلامين، لأن ليس في الامكان أفضل مما كان

ربما يتصادف أن “المشروعات القومية” التي تتطلب تضحيات كبري دائماً ما تتعارض مع “الفقراء والمُهمَّشين”، وبالتالي فإن عليهم التنازل من أجل “الصورة الأكبر”، والتي يتصادف أيضا أنها لا تشمَلهم أبداً

From Tahrir Square to Emaar Square


[Illustration of Emaar Square used for advertising and real estate promotion]

ترجمة عربية للمقال متاحة على هذا الرابط

In mid-February the Egypt subsidiary of the UAE-based Emaar signed a protocol with the Egyptian Defense Ministry which clears the way for the construction of Emaar Square, a mixed-use development with open-air shopping for international luxury brands. The development is part of the company’s exclusive Uptown Cairo. Emaar is the developer behind the world’s tallest building, Burj Khalifa. The Egyptian Defense Ministry is in many ways Egypt’s largest land owner/manager and the massive property that is now being developed by Emaar with Uptown Cairo’s exclusive residential clusters and golf course is/was owned by the military and was previously unavailable to the market.

In the years leading up to 2011 visions of the future of Cairo as imagined by the former regime and its businessmen began to emerge. That vision, known as Cairo 2050, would have led to the mass eviction of thousands of families to transform the city into pockets of high-end residential development, golf courses and shopping centers. Much of the investment power for these projects were to come from Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and the UAE. The former regime was intent to the Dubaization of Cairo and close ties between the money (Gulf capital) and power (the regime and the military) were being built. These projects were halted after the revolution took an unwanted turn (Qatar-backed Muslim Brotherhood coming to power and Qatar competing with Saudi/Kuwait/UAE for financial control in Egypt). Now, many projects are back on track, including the Maspero triangle and Uptown Cairo.

Those who celebrate the Dubai model and wish for its expansion across the region make the unethical choice of ignoring the fact that the Gulf cities of the last decade emerge out of a very specific relation between political power and capital (often one and the same). The expansion of such model into cities such as Cairo with vastly different demographics and where a military functions not as an institution of the state but as caretaker with unchallenged access both to politics and capital (in the form of assets such as land and resources for example), such a model in this context would have disastrous impact on the urban majority who will be marginalized in favor of serving an entrepreneurial transnational minority (perhaps working in Dubai and using their money to obtain property in Cairo’s Dubai-style enclaves), who will ultimately occupy the role of the colonial-era elites of the past. The urban majority will be moved out of the way when necessary and put to work under unacceptable conditions, with no power to mobilize and with little pay.

So why is this interesting? First, this is not a free market. When the military is arguably the biggest land owner with no civilian oversight makes a direct and opaque deal with a developer to build an exclusive and gated community in the heart of the capital, this is not a free market. The development is framed by the government as part of “building Egypt” and attracting investment while in fact all this is doing is creating more opportunity for private accumulated capital (buyers) to be locked into cages (gated development) with no access to democratic municipal management: those wealthy buyers won’t pressure the government for services, they will deal with a company instead.

Second (and not to state the obvious), this is not a democracy, and certainly not revolutionary. The protocol signed in Feb included the Housing Ministry, Local Development Ministry, Investment Ministry and the Governorate of Cairo. All these state institutions are partaking in one of Cairo’s most exclusive developments while the majority of the city’s population is abandoned. This cooperation between these state institutions will, for example, allow for Emaar to built a private road to link the Uptown Cairo/Emaar Square with Cairo’s road network. This private road will require the "cleansing" of Jabal al-Ahmar area (which is likely to mean the forced eviction of some poor people to get them out of the way). Egyptian state institutions, including the military, have a lengthy track record of forcibly evicting residents, and using lethal force to do it, in favor of private interests.

Why are so many state institutions failing to solve Egypt’s mounting urban problems, many of which are directly caused by these very institutions, why are they coming together to sign a protocol for a private highway to a private city? This is not the first time such uneven attention was paid by state institutions towards serving an exclusive minority with links to political and military power while turning a blind eye on the needs of the majority.


[The location of Uptown Cairo showing in yellow dotted lines the private roads linking to the city’s network. The land size of the development is comparable to the neighborhood of Zamalek]

This latest protocol went unnoticed in the news, in a way it is business as usual. So how did we get from Tahrir Square to Emaar Square?

In Egypt, urban space continues to be the stage for the struggle not only to shape the spaces of the city but also for creating new forms of democratic representation. The protests taking place in Egypt starting in 2011 and the ensuing political upheaval shed light on questions of space and political participation, particularly how spaces of the everyday have become sites of resistance, revolution and transformation. The underlying theme which has been consistent from the beginning of this most recent chapter in Egypt’s history of urban protest is the desire to (re)construct democracy from the bottom up.

The Egyptian revolt hasn’t been discussed in local and international media outlets as an urban struggle, or more specifically as a movement seeking to “overcome the isolations and to reshape the city in a different social image from that given by the powers of developers backed by finance, corporate capital, and an increasingly entrepreneurialy minded local state apparatus.”  The city has in fact been shaped by power and capital in ways which have manifested in the extreme unevenness of development resulting from the neglectful rule of the state towards the urban majority while providing concessions to international developers (namely Gulf real estate investment) or local entities, namely individuals, associations or corporations linked directly to the police and military state apparatus.

The struggle in Egypt manifest in urban space since 2011 is one directly linked to the ways in which power and capital have produced socially and economically unjust urban experiences. In Egypt the more generic terms of “corporate capital,” “finance,” and “state apparatus” aren’t helpful to put into relief the specific interlinking of power and economy accessible to the military and police, state institutions with a monopoly over violence in the name of the state, which have functioned in ways similar to corporations in other contexts, thus bearing weapons in civilian spaces and having direct access to capital and assets such as land and building materials that directly shape cities and their development.


[Image circulated in social media last month purporting to show the “Israeli-style separation wall” construction to enclose Uptown Cairo from its surroundings. It would be useful to think of this wall while contemplating the wall caging Tahrir Square]

The city, as Egyptians have come to know it, is the result of the political and economic structures protected by the regime. Cities, in this current political economy in Egypt, have lost their vital role as places of economic possibilities for the majority of the population. Instead, since the 1970s the state has fallen short of providing services, creating effective systems of urban management, producing plans for urban expansion and where capital can be invested into the production of new urban environments that allow for local private capital to grow while protecting the sanctity of the common, the public sphere and its manifestation in public spaces shared by a wide segment of the urban population.

During this time the military continually protected its grasp on Egypt’s economy leading to a 1997 presidential decree that gave the military the right to all undeveloped lands in the country, making it the largest landowner in Egypt’s history. Land is one of many commodities monopolized by the military, which it then utilizes in opaque sales operations with international investment for exclusive gated communities, beach resorts or shopping malls. The Egyptian military as an institution is perhaps the main beneficiary of Egypt’s political and economic status quo, which has produced the current urban environment. In addition to land, the military produces building materials such as cement and brick, the essential construction materials in Egypt used for everything from luxury condos in gated communities to new residential buildings in informally planned districts expanding onto agricultural land. Finally, the military has access to an unpaid labor force through the country’s mandatory conscription. Often conscripts from lower social standing coming from the poorest parts of the country work in construction sites and in factories producing building materials. More explicitly “as the managers of a state-owned economic empire built on corruption and oppression of working classes, military leaders have become decisively complicit in repressing labor and violating their rights.” The spatial confrontations, often violent, in Egyptian squares between protesters/participants and soldiers/conscripts are in many ways vivid illustrations of Egypt’s struggle over its politics, economy and space, in other words, a struggle towards a more even urban development.

UPDATE 25 February, 2014: As the government suddenly resigned news emerged that the housing minister (his ministry participated in the above discussed protocol) will become Egypt’s next prime minister.

Update 26 February, 2014: According to Ahram Online “Egypt’s draft investment law contains provisions to prevent third parties from challenging contracts made between the government and an investor.” Such a law will protect contracts such as the one discussed above from scrutiny by the public using any legal channels to challenge them.

Update 28 February, 2014: For clarification a paragraph was added above starting with “Those who celebrate the Dubai…”.

Also, it has emerged that Mustafa Madbouli, who is chiefly responsible for the Cairo 2050 plan, was asked to become Housing Minister in the new government. The plan was simply waiting for the revolution to be killed and for the values of political participation (with the implications of such participation on the making of the urban environment) heard in Tahrir Square three years ago to be silenced.